Warum die Senkung der Kohlenstoffemissionen nicht ausreicht

Vor 20 Jahren verabschiedeten die Regierungen das Montrealer Protokoll, einen Vertrag zum Schutz der Ozonschicht der Erde vor den Emissionen schädlicher Chemikalien. Kaum jemand hätte damals vorhersagen können, als wie weit reichend sich diese Entscheidung erweisen würde.

Das Protokoll verfolgte das ausdrückliche Ziel, Stoffe wie Fluorchlorkohlenwasserstoffe (FCKWs) – die sich in Produkten wie Kühlschränken, Schaumstoffen und Haarspray befanden – allmählich vom Markt zu nehmen, um den dünnen, gasförmigen Schutzschild, der die schädlichen ultravioletten Strahlen der Sonne ausfiltert, zu reparieren. Bis zum Jahr 2010 werden weltweit annähernd 100 ozonschädigende Substanzen, darunter auch die FCKWs, aus dem Verkehr gezogen sein.

Ohne die vor 20 Jahren getroffenen Entscheidungen hätte sich das Niveau ozonschädigender Stoffe innerhalb der Atmosphäre bis 2050 verzehnfacht. Dies hätte zu bis zu 20 Millionen zusätzlichen Fällen von Hautkrebs und 130 Millionen zusätzlichen Fällen von grauem Star geführt, gar nicht zu reden von den Schädigungen des menschlichen Immunsystems, der Tierwelt und der Landwirtschaft.

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