Paul Lachine

国家资本主义赢了吗?

美国剑桥—在由来已久的经济增长模式之辨中,国家资本主义似乎在近几年中占了上风。美国和英国等自由资本主义的化身在2012年继续表现萎靡,而许多亚洲国家依靠各式各样的政府干预,不但在过去几十年中实现了快速稳步增长,而且成功抵御了最近的竞技风暴,令人刮目相看。那么,经济学教科书应该因此而改写吗?

事实上,经济学从未宣布自由放任市场比国家干预甚至国家资本主义更好。国家资本主义的问题主要是政治上的,不是经济上的。任何现实世界的经济体都会经历市场失灵,因此仁慈的、权力无限的政府很可能会经常出售干预。但你见过权力无限又仁慈的政府吗?

为了理解国家资本主义的逻辑,回忆一些早期例子是有裨益的——不是社会主义指令经济,也不是试图战胜市场失灵的现代社会,而是古老文明。事实上,与农业或民主一样,国家资本主义在世界史的各个阶段独立地出现过。

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