Hungary border fence Wang Huijuan/ZumaPress

Warum Grenzmauern vergeblich sind

HONOLULU – Man kann es das Jahr der Grenzmauern nennen. 2015 haben Estland, Ungarn, Kenia, Saudi-Arabien und Tunesien allesamt die Errichtung von Sperranlagen an ihren Grenzen angekündigt oder mit dem Bau begonnen. Wir mögen im Zeitalter der Globalisierung leben, doch weite Teile der Welt setzen verstärkt auf eine Beschränkung des freien Personenverkehrs.

Am Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges hat es rund um den Globus nur fünf Grenzmauern gegeben. Laut Elisabeth Vallet von der Universität von Québec in Montreal sind es heute 65, von denen drei Viertel in den vergangenen 20 Jahren errichtet worden sind. Und in den Vereinigten Staaten versprechen republikanische Präsidentschaftskandidaten weitere. Der Spitzenreiter der Republikaner, Donald Trump, hat wiederholt den Bau einer Mauer entlang der gesamten Grenze zu Mexiko angeregt. Und in einer sonntäglichen Talkshow erklärte ein weiterer Präsidentschaftsbewerber der Republikaner, Scott Walker, Gouverneur von Wisconsin, der Bau einer Mauer an der US-Grenze zu Kanada sei „eine legitime Überlegung, die wir prüfen sollten“.

Dabei sind existierende Grenzmauern weder kostengünstig, noch wirksam. Die Errichtung der israelischen Mauer zum Westjordanland hat über 1 Million US-Dollar pro Meile (rund 1,6 km) gekostet. Die Zoll- und Grenzschutzbehörde der Vereinigten Staaten schätzt die Kosten für die Errichtung und den Betrieb der existierenden 670 Meilen des Grenzzaunes zwischen den USA und Mexiko über die erwartete Nutzungsdauer der Sperranlage von 20 Jahren auf 6,5 Milliarden US-Dollar. Ausgehend von dieser Summe würde die Befestigung der verbleibenden 2.000 Kilometer der mexikanischen Grenze über 12,6 Milliarden US-Dollar kosten. Die Errichtung einer Mauer entlang der knapp 9.000 Kilometer langen Grenze zu Kanada würde fast 50 Milliarden US-Dollar kosten und dabei mitten durch die Start- und Landebahn eines Flughafens, ein Opernhaus, Wohnhäuser und Geschäfte führen, die sich beiderseits der Grenze erstrecken.

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