Hungary border fence Wang Huijuan/ZumaPress

Pourquoi les murs frontaliers sont un échec

HONOLULU – 2015 sera donc l’année des murs frontaliers. Cette année, l’Estonie, la Hongrie, le Kenya, l’Arabie saoudite et la Tunisie ont annoncé la construction, ou ont déjà commencé à construire, des murs le long de leurs frontières. Nous vivons peut-être à une époque de mondialisation, mais de nombreux pays semblent surtout soucieux de restreindre la libre circulation des personnes.

A la fin de la Seconde guerre mondiale, il n’y avait que cinq murs frontaliers dans le monde. Aujourd’hui, selon Elisabeth Vallet de l’université du Québec à Montréal, il y en a 65, dont les trois quarts ont été construits ces 20 dernières années.  Aux États-Unis, les candidats présidentiels républicains en ont promis de nouveaux. Le favori républicain, Donald Trump, a proposé à de nombreuses reprises d’édifier un mur sur toute la longueur de la frontière sud avec le Mexique. Et lors d’une émission télévisée, un autre candidat républicain, le gouverneur du Wisconsin Scott Walker, a qualifié la construction d’un mur le long de la frontière avec le Canada comme « une question légitime que nous devrions étudier ».

Pourtant, les murs existants ne sont ni bon marché, ni efficaces. La barrière de séparation érigée par Israël en Cisjordanie coûte quelques 700.000 dollars par kilomètre. Selon le Bureau américain des douanes et de la protection des frontières, la construction et l’entretien des 1000 kilomètres environ de clôtures existantes entre les États-Unis et le Mexique coûteront 6,5 milliards de dollars sur leur durée de vie prévue de 20 ans. A ce prix, fortifier les 2000 kilomètres restants coûtera plus de 12,6 milliards de dollars. Ériger un mur le long de la frontière avec le Canada, soit près de 8900 kilomètres, se chiffrerait à presque 50 milliards de dollars et il traverserait une piste d’atterrissage, un opéra, les maisons et les entreprises actuellement situés à cheval sur la frontière.

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