Hungary border fence Wang Huijuan/ZumaPress

为何边境墙会失败

檀香山—今年可称之为边境墙之年。2015年,爱沙尼亚、匈牙利、肯尼亚、沙特阿拉伯博和突尼斯均宣布或开始沿国境线建设隔离屏障。我们也许生活在与一个全球化时代,但世界上很大一部分正日益着重于限制人们的自由迁徙。

第二次世界大战结束时,全世界只有五座边境墙。如今,根据魁北克大学蒙特利尔分校的伊丽莎白·瓦利特(Elisabeth Vallet)的数据,全球有65座边境墙,其中四分之三是在过去20年建设的。在美国,共和党总统候选人们承诺要建更多边境墙。在共和党候选人竞争中领跑的唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)一再建议沿着墨西哥边境全线建立一座墙。在一次周日晨间脱口秀上,另一位共和党候选人、威斯康辛州州长斯科特·沃克尔(Scott Walker)在加拿大边境建设一座边境墙是“一个我们看来相当合理的事项”。

然而现有边境墙可谓事倍功半。以色列在约旦河西岸建立的边境墙每英里耗资超过一百万美元。据美国海关与边境保护局的数据,建设和维护现有670英里墨西哥边境隔离障将在隔离障设施20年的生命周期中耗费65亿美元。照此推算,在剩余1,300英里墨西哥边境依样画葫芦的代价将超过126亿美元。

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