Una ruta hacia la desunión de Europa

MÚNICH – El lema de los Estados Unidos de América es “E pluribus unum” (de muchos, uno). El de la Unión Europea es “In varietate concordia”, cuya traducción oficial al español es “Unida en la diversidad”. Es difícil expresar más claramente las diferencias entre Estados Unidos y el modelo europeo. Estados Unidos es un crisol de razas, Europa es un mosaico de pueblos y culturas diferentes surgido como resultado de una larga historia.

Esta diferencia suscita dudas respecto de la conveniencia de luchar por la creación de unos Estados Unidos de Europa. Muchos se niegan a aceptar esta idea, porque no creen que una identidad europea unificada sea posible; recalcan además que para crear un sistema político único, como el de Estados Unidos, es necesario que haya un idioma común y una única nacionalidad.

Tal vez tengan razón quienes piensan que la idea de los Estados Unidos de Europa (el sueño de muchos niños de posguerra como yo) nunca se podrá llevar a la práctica, pero yo no estoy tan seguro. Después de todo, profundizar la integración europea y crear un sistema político único conlleva ventajas prácticas innegables, para las que no hacen falta una identidad o un idioma comunes. Algunos ejemplos son: el derecho de cruzar las fronteras con libertad; el libre movimiento de bienes y servicios; garantías jurídicas para las actividades económicas transfronterizas; una infraestructura de transporte paneuropea; y lo que no es menos importante, un sistema común de defensa.

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