谁的企业社会责任?

发自纽约——以非政府组织为首的外界正向企业施加越来越大的压力,要求他们去承担某些特定的“企业社会责任”。但即便对这类责任的呼声越来越大,企业也偶尔做出让步,却不能确保这些责任以及承担这些责任的方式是合理的。

一般来说,企业社会责任可以被分成两类:企业应该做的(比如说向一个保护妇女权益的非政府组织捐款,或是捐建一所乡村学校)以及不应该做的(向河中排放水银或在填埋场掩埋危险物料),而后者属于一般性行为,且易于监管(但在东道国缺乏相关监管的情况下,企业该如何作为?对此也有争论)。

但是,企业承担社会责任真的一种合理的行为吗?米尔顿·弗里德曼以及其他一些批评家一直都质疑企业是否应开展利他主义行为。在企业诞生之前,社会上存在的主要是一些诸如罗斯柴尔德这样的家族产业,赚到的收入主要归家族所有。那个时候,利他主义行为主要也是由家族来承担,钱怎么花,花在哪里,决定权都在家族手里,而不是在企业或其股东以及其他利益相关者身上。

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