Qui veut vraiment la paix au Moyen-Orient ?

Quarante ans après la Guerre des Six jours, la perspective d’une paix entre Israéliens et Palestiniens semble toujours aussi lointaine. Israël persiste dans son refus de considérer le nouveau gouvernement d’unité nationale palestinien comme un partenaire de négociations parce que le Hamas en fait partie. Quelle est l’origine de ce paradoxe apparent ? Quelle issue envisager ?

Le gouvernement palestinien est uni sur le plan administratif, mais divisé politiquement. Les Palestiniens ont élu un gouvernement qui applique deux politiques différentes. Au plan politique, le Premier ministre palestinien, Ismail Haniyeh, reste opposé à la reconnaissance d’Israël et au respect des accords existants. Il a déclaré qu’il était en faveur de la poursuite de la résistance, sous toutes ses formes. Peut-on en déduire que cette attitude est garante d’un effort de bonne volonté pour conclure un accord de paix ?

C’est cette question même que doit se poser l’Union européenne lorsqu’elle débattra de reprendre ou non l’aide financière à l’Autorité palestinienne. L’UE doit clairement faire comprendre au Hamas qu’elle n’a pas l’intention de financer la terreur, ni de financer un refus de négocier un accord de paix. Si les Palestiniens souhaitent obtenir une aide de l’Union européenne – un principe auquel j’adhère sans réserve – ils doivent être prêts à conclure un accord de paix et non à relancer les hostilités. Après tout, ce n’est pas le Hamas en tant que parti qui est contestable ; ce qui l’est, par contre, sont ses politiques et ses objectifs. Nous n’avons rien contre le Hamas ; nous sommes contre ses politiques belliqueuses, que l’exercice du gouvernement n’a pas modifié.

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