Prophylaxe für schwule Männer

LONDON – Im Oktober taten zwei Forschergruppen, die möglicherweise vor dem Durchbruch im Kampf gegen HIV stehen, etwas Ungewöhnliches: Sie kündigten an, dass sich ein antiretrovirales Medikament namens Truvada, das sie gerade testeten, als effektiv genug herausgestellt hatte, um die randomisierte Phase der Versuche zu beenden, und boten die Pille allen Teilnehmern der Studie an.

Die Forscher konnten nachweisen, dass schwule Männer, die Truvada nehmen und beim Sex Kondome benutzen, ein erheblich geringeres Risiko hatten, sich mit HIV anzustecken. Dies ist ein weiterer Beweis für die Wirksamkeit einer Präexpositionsprophylaxe (PrEP), einer Technik, bei welcher HIV-negative Menschen antiretrovirale Medikamente nehmen, um sich vor einer Infektion zu schützen. 2011 ergab eine von der Gates-Stiftung finanzierte Studie, dass bei heterosexuellen Paaren das Risiko, HIV zu übertragen, um 73 Prozent reduziert werden kann, wenn sie Truveda nehmen.

Damit gibt es im Arsenal des Kampfes gegen HIV/AIDS eine neue Waffe. Die Frage ist jetzt, wie sie am besten zu den Menschen gelangt, die sie am meisten brauchen: schwulen Männern in Entwicklungsländern.

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