Préparer les homosexuels à la prophylaxie pré-exposition

LONDRES – En octobre dernier, deux groupes de chercheurs menant des essais cliniques sur l’efficacité d’un médicament potentiellement révolutionnaire dans la lutte contre le VIH ont pris une décision inhabituelle. Ils ont annoncé que le traitement qu’ils testaient, au moyen d’un médicament antirétroviral appelé Truvada, s’était révélé suffisamment efficace pour mettre fin à la période d’essais cliniques randomisés et que ce médicament serait mis à la disposition de tous les participants à l’étude.

Les chercheurs ont découvert que les homosexuels qui prenaient régulièrement du Truvada, tout en utilisant des préservatifs lors des rapports sexuels, avaient beaucoup moins de chances de contracter le VIH. Ce fait confirme l’efficacité de la prophylaxie pré-exposition (PrEP) dont le principe consiste à proposer à des personnes non infectées d’utiliser des traitements antirétroviraux pour se protéger du risque de contracter le VIH. En 2011, un essai clinique mené par la Fondation Gates a montré que la prise de Truvada par les couples hétérosexuels réduisait de 73 pour cent le taux de transmission du VIH.

Les acteurs de la lutte contre la propagation du VIH/sida ont donc un nouvel outil à leur disposition. La question qui se pose maintenant est comment le mettre à la disposition de ceux qui en ont le plus besoin : les homosexuels des pays en développement.

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