Dean Rohrer

Qui a peur de la Cour européenne des Droits de l’Homme ?

SOFIA – Au moment où la crise de la dette européenne est en passe de fracturer la confiance du public dans les institutions politiques et économiques du continent, on s’attendrait à ce que les dirigeants de l’Europe renforcent autant que possible ses symboles unificateurs. Au lieu de cela, ils ont laissé l’un des joyaux de l’intégration européenne né de la Seconde guerre mondiale – la Cour européenne des Droits de l’Homme (CEDH) –  devenir la proie de cette même menace.

Contrairement à l’Union européenne de Bruxelles, sujette depuis bien longtemps à un déficit démocratique, la CEDH de Strasbourg fait l’objet du plus grand enthousiasme. En 2011, plus de 60 000 personnes son venues solliciter son assistance – en si grand nombre qu’elles ne sauraient toutes espérer bénéficier d’une décision de justice. (Par opposition, la Cour suprême des États-Unis reçoit chaque année environ 10 000 requêtes.)

Pour libérer la CEDH de cet écrasant fardeau, un certain nombre d’États membres ont proposé plusieurs changements qui pourraient bien l’affaiblir, même là n’est pas nécessairement leur intention. Il est nécessaire que ceux d’entre nous qui croient passionnément à cette Cour et à ses accomplissements s’expriment sans tarder afin de persuader les partisans de ces réformes malavisées de faire machine arrière. En effet, les 47 États membres de la CEDH – qui concerne tout de même 800 millions d’individus – doivent assumer davantage leur responsabilité afin de faire en sorte que le système existant fonctionne tel qu’il est.

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