Xi Jinping and Barack Obama Rao Aimin/ZumaPress

L'Amérique toujours aux commandes de la planète

WASHINGTON, DC – Les affirmations autour d'une mort annoncée de la puissance américaine se révèlent bien souvent exagérées. Dans les années 1950, beaucoup considéraient l'Union soviétique comme ayant pris le pas sur les États-Unis ; celle-ci n'existe plus aujourd'hui. De même, dans les années 1980, beaucoup s'attendaient à voir le Japon surpasser rapidement l'Amérique ; un scénario que nul ne peut désormais sérieusement avancer, après deux décennies de stagnation japonaise. Enfin, dans les années 1990, l'union monétaire était censée propulser l'Europe vers un statut mondial prééminent ; si l'économie européenne fait aujourd'hui fréquemment les gros titres de la presse internationale, c'est rarement de manière élogieuse.

C'est désormais au tour de la Chine d'être mise en avant. Jusqu'à récemment, et aux yeux de nombreux observateurs, la Chine semblait s'apprêter à endosser un rôle de leadership mondial, si tel n'était pas déjà le cas. Aujourd'hui, l'incertitude entourant les perspectives à long terme de l'économie chinoise vient secouer les marchés boursiers du monde entier (y compris aux États-Unis).

La Chine revêt bien entendu une importance majeure, et ses politiques économiques, notamment la manière dont elle gère le taux de change, doivent être prises au sérieux. Pour autant, la Chine n'est pas une puissance maîtresse du monde, et elle ne devrait pas y parvenir de sitôt. Que l'on veuille ou non l'admettre, le potentiel de leadership mondial réside encore et toujours du côté des États-Unis.

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