谁是玻利维亚的主人?

几个月前,莫拉莱斯成为玻利维亚首位经民主程序当选的土著人国家元首。土著人占玻利维亚人口的62%,混血人口占另外的30%。但是在过去500年里,玻利维亚人一直由殖民强国及其后裔统治。二十世纪很长一段时间,土著人实际上被剥夺了投票权和发言权。土著人语言艾马拉语和盖丘亚语甚至不被承认为公共事务用语。所以,莫拉莱斯的当选是历史性的,而且玻利维亚民心激动是显而易见的。

但是,莫拉莱斯将玻利维亚的石油和天然气油田收归国有却令国际社会震惊不已。在竞选过程中,莫拉莱斯明确表明,他打算提高对国家天然气和石油的控制。但是,他还同样明确表明他并不打算征收能源公司的财产,而是想让外国投资者留在玻利维亚(国有化当然并不意味着不经适当补偿予以征收)。莫拉莱斯的言论对于现代政治家们而言可能是令人惊讶的,因此他对自己的承诺严肃对待。他真心关心提高其一贫如洗的人民的收入,并认识到玻利维亚需要外国专业知识来取得经济增长,而这就需要公允地支付他们的服务。但是,外国所有者们是否得到了公允的回报率呢?

莫拉莱斯的行动得到了玻利维亚人的广泛支持。他们把前总统桑切斯当政期间的所谓私有化(或者“资本化”)视为抢劫。玻利维亚只获得18%的收入!玻利维亚人疑惑不解,为什么大约30亿美元的投资就让外国投资者拥有该国大量天然气储备的82%,而这些储备现在估计相当于2500亿美元。尽管目前还没有完全披露回报、稽查投资的真实价值,看起来投资者们根据原有条款已经在短短四年时间里收回了全部投资。

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