Quel sera le prochain dirigeant de la Banque centrale européenne ?

TILBURG, PAYS-BAS – Alors qu'il y a deux ans on considérait les gouverneurs des banques centrales comme des héros en raison des efforts qu'ils ont déployé pour éviter que la crise financière ne se transforme en une deuxième Grande dépression, aujourd'hui ils essuient une volée de critiques. Nombreux sont les pays à exercer sur eux des pressions qui remettent en cause leur indépendance, notamment dans la zone euro, ainsi que l'a souligné récemment Mario Draghi, le gouverneur de la Banque d'Italie.

La personnalité des gouverneurs des banques centrales compte beaucoup, aujourd'hui plus que jamais, car les crises financières menacent toujours leur indépendance.

Aux USA, seul Obama paraît soutenir la Réserve fédérale, une situation guère enviable. Le Congrès dénigre la Fed pour sa réaction face à la crise, et Ron Ronald, le député du Texas qui va diriger l'un des plus importants des Comités de contrôle du congrès ce mois-ci, estime que son existence même est inconstitutionnelle. Plus de la moitié des Américains souhaitent que le gouvernement ait davantage son mot à dire sur la politique monétaire – une perspective effrayante, compte tenu du passé.

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