Matt Wuerker

Какая глобализация сможет выжить?

КЕМБРИДЖ. Мировая экономика в этом году сократится впервые с 1945 года, и некоторые экономисты обеспокоены тем, что текущий кризис приведет к концу глобализации. Тяжелое экономическое время соотносят с протекционизмом, по мере того как каждая страна обвиняет других и защищает рабочие места внутри своей страны. В 1930-х годах такая политика «разорения соседа» только усугубила ситуацию. Если политики не будут препятствовать таким действиям, то прошлое может повториться.

По иронии, тем не менее, такие мрачные перспективы не будут означать окончание глобализации, которая характеризуется увеличением взаимозависимых сетей во всем мире. У глобализации есть несколько измерений, и хотя экономисты слишком часто описывают ее и мировую экономику как одно целое, существуют также и другие формы глобализации, которые оказывают значительное влияние – и не все это влияние оказывает благоприятное воздействие – на нашу повседневную жизнь.

Самая старая форма глобализации – это окружающая среда. Например, первая эпидемия оспы была зарегистрирована в Египте в 1350 году до нашей эры. Она дошла до Китая в 49 году нашей эры, до Европы после 700 года, до Америки в 1520 году и до Австралии в l789 году. Бубонная чума, или черная смерть, зародилась в Азии, однако, распространившись, она унесла в четырнадцатом веке жизни каждого четвертого или третьего жителя Европы.

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