全球问题的解决者到哪去了?

发自纽约——当今全球政治的一个奇怪和令人困扰之处是对谈判协商和解决问题的混淆。在2007年12月份在哥本哈根制定的时间表,我们本还有6个月的时间在气候变化问题上达成全球一致的协议。然而各国政府却都把心思放在了大规模谈判而非不遗余力地解决问题之上。每一个本应自问“该如何合作以最低成本和最大收益实来现共同目标”的国家,却反而在算计“该如何让自己承担最少而让其他国家做的更多?”

上述两个问题虽然都跟国家利益最大化有关,但却有着天渊之别。事实上,解决气候变化问题需要减少燃烧化石燃料所排放的二氧化碳,但这反过来又涉及到相关技术的选择问题,虽然其中一些技术已经成熟,但还有一大部分仍有待发展。举例来说,如果那些燃煤发电厂希望自己能继续作为能源供给结构的重要组成部分存在的话,那么就要应用捕获并储存二氧化碳的技术,这个技术过程被称为“碳捕捉和封存”(简称CCS),但却还未经研究证明有效。

同样,我们需要公众对新一代的核电厂重新树立信心并安全可靠地监控其核反应堆的运作。我们还需要发展能够大规模利用太阳能、风能和地热资源的新技术,甚至可以尝试开发生物燃料,只要不威胁到粮食供给和稀有环境资源就行了。

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