Janet Yellen Ron Sachs/ZumaPress

Kdo je připravený na zvýšení sazeb v USA?

MANILA – Možnost, že americký Federální rezervní systém poprvé po deseti letech zvýší úrokovou sazbu, vyvolává už několik týdnů nervozitu na rozvíjejících se trzích. Fed se sice prozatím rozhodl ponechat svou hlavní sazbu beze změny, ale zároveň konstatoval, že možnost zvýšení sazeb v roce 2015 stále leží na stole. Panují obavy, že země závislé na zahraničním financování by mohly být zasaženy náhlým odlivem mezinárodního kapitálu nebo že znehodnocení měn po zvýšení sazeb Fedem by mohlo zvednout státům i firmám náklady na obsluhu dluhu.

Vlády v rozvojovém světě by však udělaly dobře, kdyby se méně staraly o změny úrokových sazeb ve Spojených státech – které nemohou nijak ovlivnit – a více přemýšlely o změnách domácí hospodářské politiky, jež by mohly zvýšit odolnost jejich ekonomik.

Zvýšení úrokových sazeb v USA nemusí být pro rozvíjející se země nutně špatnou zprávou. Řada rozvojových států – zejména v Asii – je v mnohem lepší makroekonomické kondici, než byly krátce před asijskou finanční krizí koncem 90. let a na počátku globální finanční krize v roce 2008.

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