O mito da democracia “caqui”

NOVA IORQUE – O Egipto e a Tailândia têm pouco em comum, excepto numa coisa. Em ambos os países, em épocas diferentes, as pessoas instruídas que se orgulham de serem democratas acabaram por aplaudir os golpes militares contra os governos eleitos. Resistiram a regimes militares opressivos durante muitos anos. Mas, na Tailândia, em 2006, bem com no Egipto, no mês passado, ficaram felizes por verem os seus líderes políticos a serem expulsos à força.

Esta perversidade tem uma razão de ser. Os líderes eleitos em ambos os países, Thaksin Shinawatra na Tailândia e Mohamed Morsi no Egipto, eram bons exemplos de democratas não liberais: eles tendiam a ver o seu sucesso eleitoral como um mandato para manipularem as normas constitucionais e comportarem-se como autocratas.

Eles não estão sozinhos neste aspecto. Na verdade, eles são, provavelmente, os típicos líderes de países com pouca ou nenhuma história de governos democráticos. O primeiro-ministro da Turquia, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, está na mesma facção. E se os líderes da Frente Islâmica de Salvação (FIS) da Argélia tivessem sido autorizados a tomar o poder em 1991, após o seu sucesso inicial numa eleição democrática, eles teriam sido quase certamente governantes não liberais. (Em vez disso, foram esmagados por um golpe militar, antes que uma segunda ronda das eleições pudesse ocorrer, originando uma violenta guerra civil de oito anos onde cerca de 200 mil pessoas morreram).

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