Mythos Militärdemokratie

NEW YORK – Ägypten und Thailand haben wenig gemein, außer einem: In beiden Ländern haben gebildete Menschen, die sich stolz als Demokraten betrachten, letztlich zu unterschiedlichen Zeiten Militärputschen gegen ihre gewählten Regierungen applaudiert. Diese Menschen hatten zuvor viele Jahre lang repressiven Militärregimen Widerstand geleistet. Doch sowohl in Thailand im Jahre 2006 als auch letzten Monat in Ägypten waren sie froh, ihre politischen Führungen gewaltsam abgesetzt zu sehen.

Dieser Widerspruch hat seine Gründe. Die gewählten Führer in beiden Ländern, Thaksin Shinawatra in Thailand und Mohamed Mursi in Ägypten, waren Paradebeispiele „illiberaler Demokraten“: Sie neigten dazu, ihren Wahlerfolg als Mandat zur Manipulation von Verfassungsnormen anzusehen und sich wie Autokraten zu verhalten.

Sie sind damit nicht allein. Tatsächlich sind sie vermutlich typische Beispiele für Führer von Ländern ohne oder ohne große demokratische Tradition. Der türkische Ministerpräsident Recep Tayyip Erdoğan etwa ist demselben Lager zuzuordnen. Und hätte man 1991 in Algerien den Führern der Islamischen Heilsfront gestattet, nach ihrem frühen Erfolg bei einer demokratischen Wahl die Macht zu übernehmen, hätten sie sich fast mit Sicherheit als illiberale Herrscher erwiesen. (Stattdessen wurden sie durch einen Militärputsch unterdrückt, bevor ein zweiter Wahlgang erfolgen konnte. Dies löste einen brutalen, acht Jahre währenden Bürgerkrieg aus, bei dem schätzungsweise 200.000 Menschen ums Leben kamen.)

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