军事民主的神话

纽约——埃及和泰国几乎没有什么共同之处,只有一点除外。在这两个国家的不同时期,一直以民主人士自居的高学历人士都对推翻民选政府的军事政变击掌称赞。他们多年来一直苦苦抵制压迫性的军事政权。但2006年在泰国和上个月在埃及,他们都很乐于看到政治领袖被武力推翻。

这种反常也并非毫无道理。两国的当选领袖(泰国的他信·西那瓦和埃及的穆罕默德·穆尔西)都符合非自由民主的特征:他们似乎认为选举成功就有权操纵宪法并实行独裁。

他们的例子并非绝无仅有。事实上,他们也许是典型的非民主国家领袖。土耳其总理雷杰普·塔伊普·埃尔多安也属于这一阵营。如果1991年阿尔及利亚伊斯兰拯救阵线(FIS)领袖获准在赢得首轮民主选举后执掌权力,他们几乎也肯定会进入非自由统治者的阵营。(相反,他们在第二轮选举开始前就被一场军事政变所粉碎,由此引发八年的残酷内战导致约200,000人丧生。)

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