L’Inde aux Urnes

KERALA, INDIA – Coup d’envoi ce mois-ci en Inde, de l’un des plus grands exercices de démocratie du monde, qui connaîtra son paroxysme quand les électeurs se rendront aux urnes pour appeler un nouveau Parlement national à siéger. Ils y ont été sollicités 14 fois depuis que l’Inde a conquis son indépendance. Ce mode d’expression donne lieu, à chaque élection indienne, à une affluence sans équivalent dans le reste du monde démocratique. Et la population indienne, toujours croissante, pulvérise continuellement son propre record.

Le nombre d’inscrits sur les listes électorales atteint cette année 714 millions, 43 millions de votants supplémentaires par rapport aux élections générales de 2004. On compte 828 804 bureaux de vote, disséminés dans l’ensemble du pays, pour plus de 5000 candidats que présentent sept partis politiques nationaux et plusieurs partis régionaux et divers. La procédure mobilise quatre millions d’agents électoraux et 6,1 millions de policiers et personnel civil.

Numériquement, l’ampleur du phénomène est telle que les élections devront se dérouler en cinq phases, la dernière se clôturant dès le 13 mai prochain. Les agents électoraux et agents de la sécurité seront déplacés d’un état à l’autre, à mesure que s’achèvera le scrutin dans chacun de ces états. Malgré cet échelonnement, on ne procédera qu’au seul décompte national, juste après la dernière phase, et les résultats, tous bureaux de vote confondus, seront annoncés le 16 mai. Un nouveau parlement sera convoqué le 2 juin, pour élire le gouvernement qui succédera à celui du Premier ministre sortant, Manmohan Singh.

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