When France Says No

Není to tak dávno, co jeden americký politolog přirovnal ztrátu francouzského vlivu v Evropě po předloňském odmítnutí ústavní smlouvy EU v referendu ke kapitulaci Francie v roce 1940. Je to provokativní analogie, avšak je také příhodná? Kolaps v roce 1940 odhalil křehkost francouzské demokracie a ztrátu důvěry ve schopnost země čelit vnějším hrozbám. Odmítnutím evropské ústavy pak Francie vyjádřila mimo jiné strach z globalizace.

Lepší analogii pro francouzské „ne“ představuje odmítnutí smlouvy o založení Evropského obranného společenství (EDC) v roce 1954. V obou případech jsme se dopustili velké historické chyby. Francie obě smlouvy do značné míry iniciovala, prosadila jejich přijetí evropskými partnery, ale nakonec vlastní úsilí vetovala.

Proč Francouzi – v jednom případě Národní shromáždění, ve druhém voliči – odmítli v letech 1954 i 2005 návrhy, které koncipovala sama Francie? Oba projekty usilovaly o vytvoření ryze nadnárodní Evropy. Na základě EDC by vznikla evropská armáda, do níž by byly začleněny dokonce i německé jednotky. Navrhovanou obrannou smlouvu měly podepřít také plány na vytvoření evropského politického společenství, jehož hlavní rysy měla definovat ústavní komise složená z poslanců národních parlamentů. Tato komise by se v podstatě bývala stala předchůdkyní Konventu o budoucnosti Evropy z let 2003-2004, který pod předsednictvím někdejšího francouzského prezidenta Valéryho Giscarda d’Estainga sepsal ústavní smlouvu.

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