¿En qué fallaron los Estados Unidos?

La última edición de la encuesta Pew Global Attitudes Survey muestra que las opiniones favorables respecto a los Estados Unidos han caído una vez más en 12 de los 15 países donde se llevó a cabo; triste reflejo de la pérdida de imagen de un país. ¿Cómo pueden los Estados Unidos recuperar su legitimidad internacional? Este es tal vez uno de los desafíos más importantes para el mundo actual, ya que ese país conserva un poder único que debería utilizarse –y percibirse- como una fuerza para el bien, si es que la estabilidad global ha de prevalecer.

Casi dos décadas después de la desaparición del imperio soviético, lo que resalta es un sentimiento generalizado de oportunidad perdida. Los Estados Unidos tuvieron una oportunidad única al final de la Guerra Fría para utilizar su superioridad benévola e ilustrada a fin de establecer un orden internacional mejor. Pero, debido a una combinación de motivos políticos y personales, los Estados Unidos perdieron tiempo durante los dos períodos de Bill Clinton.

En efecto, en ese "momento unipolar" necesariamente corto y frágil, Clinton tal vez intuyó cuáles debían ser las nuevas responsabilidades de los Estados Unidos, pero no actuó. La derrota de los demócratas en las elecciones intermedias de 1994, seguida del asunto Mónica Lewinsky, obstaculizó la efectividad de uno de los presidentes más activos y dotados de los Estados Unidos.

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