Le problème de l’Amérique

La dernière édition de l’enquête Pew Global Attitudes montre que les opinions favorables à l’égard des États-Unis ont encore chuté dans 12 des 15 pays interrogés, triste reflet de la dégradation de l’image d’un pays. Comment l’Amérique peut-elle retrouver une légitimité internationale ? C’est probablement l’un des principaux défis du monde actuel, car l’Amérique conserve une puissance unique qui devrait être utilisée, et perçue, comme une force bénéfique si l’on veut que prévale la stabilité mondiale.

Presque vingt ans après la chute de l’empire soviétique, ce qui se détache est un sentiment prévalant d’occasions manquées. Les États-Unis avaient une occasion unique à la fin de la Guerre froide d’utiliser leur supériorité bienveillante et éclairée pour établir un meilleur ordre international. Pourtant, à la fois pour des raisons politiques et personnelles, l’Amérique a perdu du temps lors des deux mandats de Bill Clinton.

En effet, au cours de ce “moment unipolaire” nécessairement court et fragile, Clinton a probablement eu l’intuition de ce que devaient être les nouvelles responsabilités de l’Amérique, sans pour autant se montrer à la hauteur. La défaite des démocrates lors des élections de mi-mandat en 1994, suivie du scandale Monica Lewinsky, ont entravé l’efficacité de l’un des présidents américains parmi les plus énergiques et les plus talentueux.

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