All’Egitto dobbiamo molto

CAMBRIDGE – La questione tuttora al centro di numerose discussioni sullo sviluppo economico è la seguente: cosa possiamo fare noi per rilanciare la crescita economica e ridurre la povertà in tutto il mondo? Il “noi” talvolta è la Banca mondiale, talvolta sono gli Stati Uniti e altri Paesi ricchi, talvolta i professori di economia dello sviluppo e i loro studenti riuniti in un’aula di seminario. È su questo tema che si basa l’intera politica di aiuti allo sviluppo.

Ma ciò che ha trasformato la Tunisia, l’Egitto e la Libia negli ultimi due anni non sono stati i tentativi del mondo esterno di migliorare queste società o le loro economie, bensì l’intento dei movimenti sociali popolari di modificare i sistemi politici dei rispettivi Paesi. Tutto ha avuto inizio in Tunisia, dove la rivoluzione ha sovvertito il regime repressivo del presidente Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. Poi si è diffusa in Egitto e in Libia, ponendo fine ai regimi ancor più repressivi e corrotti di Hosni Mubarak e Muammar el-Qaddafi.

Le persone che si sono riversate nelle strade e hanno rischiato la propria vita erano stanche della repressione e della povertà perpetrate da questi regimi. Il livello di reddito dell’egiziano medio, ad esempio, si aggira appena attorno al 12% rispetto a quello dell’americano medio, e l’aspettativa di vita degli egiziani è inferiore di 10 anni. Il 20% della popolazione vive in estrema povertà.

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