¿Qué debería contener un segundo acuerdo de Bretton Woods?

NUEVA YORK – Para aquellos que hemos reclamado por mucho tiempo que la arquitectura financiera internacional necesita reformas profundas, la llamada a convocar una segunda conferencia de Bretton Woods es afortunada. Cabe recordar, por supuesto, que después de las crisis asiática y rusa de 1997-1998 se hicieron solicitudes similares, que los países industrializados no tomaron en serio. Quizás el hecho de que ahora están en el centro de la tormenta los lleve a tomar la tarea con empeño.

Hay dos problemas fundamentales con el reciente llamado a la reforma. El primero es que carece de contenido: no es claro en qué consistirían las discusiones sobre un eventual Bretton Woods II. El segundo es que el proceso comenzó con un paso en la dirección equivocada, al excluir a la mayoría de los países de los diálogos. Es obviamente saludable que el Grupo de los 7 o un subconjunto de países del G-7 muestre liderazgo, pero no puede haber una reforma fundamental sin un proceso inclusivo que de voz adecuada tanto a los países industrializados como en desarrollo, y tanto a los países grandes como pequeños. Las instituciones de alcance mundial, no grupos ad hoc de países deben estar en el centro del proceso de reforma.

El tema más claro de la agenda es cómo corregir el déficit de regulación prudencial que caracteriza los mercados financieros mundiales. Esta discusión debe comenzar por acuerdos sobre los principios regulatorios. Uno obvio es que las regulaciones deben ser comprensivas, para evitar los vacíos significativos que condujeron a la turbulencia actual.

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