¿Qué tiene de malo el liderazgo transformacional?

CAMBRIDGE - La campaña presidencial de este año en los Estados Unidos ha estado marcada por los llamados a Barack Obama de los posibles contendoresamp#160; republicanos a que emprenda una transformación radical de la política exterior estadounidense. Las campañas son siempre más extremas que la realidad final, pero los países deben ser cautelosos ante las peticiones de cambios transformacionales. Las cosas no siempre salen según lo previsto.

La política exterior no desempeñó casi ningún papel en las elecciones presidenciales estadounidenses del año 2000. En 2001, George W. Bush comenzó su primer mandato con poco interés por la política exterior, pero adoptó objetivos transformacionales después de los ataques terroristas del 11 de septiembre de 2001. Al igual que Woodrow Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt y Harry Truman antes que él, recurrió a la retórica de la democracia para unir a sus seguidores en tiempos de crisis

Bill Clinton también había hablado sobre la conveniencia de ampliar el papel de los derechos humanos y la democracia en la política exterior de EE.UU., pero en la década los 90 la mayoría de los estadounidenses prefería, en lugar de cambios, la normalidad y los dividendos de la paz posterior a la Guerra Fría. Por el contrario, la Estrategia de Seguridad Nacional de Bush de 2002, que llegó a ser llamada la Doctrina Bush, proclamaba que Estados Unidos "identificaría y eliminaría a los terroristas dondequiera que estén, junto con los regímenes que los apoyan". La solución al problema terrorista era difundir la democracia en todo el mundo.

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