Le “profilage ethnique” par où pèche-t-il?

BRUSSELS – Il n’y a encore que quelques d’années, alors que terrorisme, immigration et colère des banlieues s’étalaient à la une des médias en France, un policier faisait cette confidence à un chercheur: “Le trafic en tout genre, il est évident que ce sont les Noirs ou les Arabes qui sont derrière. Quand on croise un Noir ou un homme qui a l’air arabe, on se dit ‘Il ne fait pas français,’ alors on l’arrête pour voir s’il a ses papiers.”

Ce policier donnait là un bon aperçu de ce que recouvre l’expression “profilage ethnique”: contrôles, fouilles ou arrestations sur la base de stéréotypes, plutôt que d’informations précises sur le comportement. Le profilage ethnique n’a pas de statut légal en Europe. Il s’avère inefficace dans la lutte contre la criminalité. Contre-productif, comme réponse au terrorisme. Mais il est toujours à l’honneur chez les policiers européens.

Les chiffres que le gouvernement britannique a fait paraître début mai, corroborent la thèse de l’inefficacité. Entre 2007 et 2008, sur plus de 117 000 interpellations, 72 seulement se sont traduites par des arrestations pour actes ayant trait au terrorisme. Ailleurs en Europe, on ne fait pas de recoupements entre arrestations policières et appartenance ethnique ou religieuse des prévenus, mais ce que l’on peut constater au travers d’enquêtes privées ou d’études de cas est d’une similitude confondante.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.


Log in

  1. An employee works at a chemical fiber weaving company VCG/Getty Images

    China in the Lead?

    For four decades, China has achieved unprecedented economic growth under a centralized, authoritarian political system, far outpacing growth in the Western liberal democracies. So, is Chinese President Xi Jinping right to double down on authoritarianism, and is the “China model” truly a viable rival to Western-style democratic capitalism?

  2. The assembly line at Ford Bill Pugliano/Getty Images

    Whither the Multilateral Trading System?

    The global economy today is dominated by three major players – China, the EU, and the US – with roughly equal trading volumes and limited incentive to fight for the rules-based global trading system. With cooperation unlikely, the world should prepare itself for the erosion of the World Trade Organization.

  3. Donald Trump Saul Loeb/Getty Images

    The Globalization of Our Discontent

    Globalization, which was supposed to benefit developed and developing countries alike, is now reviled almost everywhere, as the political backlash in Europe and the US has shown. The challenge is to minimize the risk that the backlash will intensify, and that starts by understanding – and avoiding – past mistakes.

  4. A general view of the Corn Market in the City of Manchester Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

    A Better British Story

    Despite all of the doom and gloom over the United Kingdom's impending withdrawal from the European Union, key manufacturing indicators are at their highest levels in four years, and the mood for investment may be improving. While parts of the UK are certainly weakening economically, others may finally be overcoming longstanding challenges.

  5. UK supermarket Waring Abbott/Getty Images

    The UK’s Multilateral Trade Future

    With Brexit looming, the UK has no choice but to redesign its future trading relationships. As a major producer of sophisticated components, its long-term trade strategy should focus on gaining deep and unfettered access to integrated cross-border supply chains – and that means adopting a multilateral approach.

  6. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now