“种族歧视”的弊端


布鲁塞尔—几年前,当有关恐怖主义、移民及巴黎郊区骚乱的消息占据法国新闻媒体的头条时,一名法国警官私下里向一名学者透露:“一旦你想到各种非法交易时,很显然,这些事都是黑人和阿拉伯人干的。如果你在路上看见一个黑人或者一个长相有阿拉伯人特征的人,你会告诉自己,‘他看上去不是法国人。’然后你也许会拦住他,让他出示证件。”

这名警官所描述的正是一种教科书式的“以种族相貌取人”的例子。执法人员在决定是否叫停、搜查或拘留当事人时,依据的信息不是关于当事人行为的,而是套用了一种思维定势。这种“以种族相貌取人”的方式在欧洲是不合法的。捉拿罪犯时并不奏效,同样的,在对抗恐怖主义活动也没有效果。但是,全欧洲的警官却沿用采用这种方式。

5月初,这种“以种族相貌取人”的方式引起重视,这源于当时英国政府发布的一组数据,数据显示,在2007至2008年间,警察展开的对当事人117,000次的叫停问询中,只有72次与恐怖犯罪有关,最后对当事人逮捕。关于警察根据调查对象的种族或者宗教背景对当事人进行问询的事例,其他一些主要欧洲国家还没有搜集相关数据。但私家调查机构和一些非正式渠道提供的数据却是令人惊人般的相似。

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