Politique fiscale américaine : un accord équilibré

CAMBRIDGE – Le plan fiscal sur lequel le président Obama et l'opposition républicaine au Congrès se sont mis d'accord représente la bonne combinaison de mesures à court terme,  accompagnée d'un premier pas vers une politique budgétaire raisonnable à long terme. Le principal point de l'accord est le maintien des taux d'imposition d'impôt sur le revenu de 2010 pendant encore deux ans, sans engagement pour la suite.

Sans cet accord, les taux d'imposition de 2011 auraient été ceux qui étaient en vigueur avant les baisses d'impôt décidées par Bush en 2001, ce qui se serait traduit par une hausse d'impôt pour tous les contribuables - à hauteur d'environ 450 milliards de dollars en 2011 et 2012, soit 1,5% du PIB.

Comme depuis peu le PIB américain ne croit plus que de 2% par an et la consommation des ménages seulement de 1%, cela aurait sans doute précipité l'économie américaine dans la récession. On dit souvent que cet accord va stimuler l'économie, mais plus précisément il permet d'éviter une contraction budgétaire immédiate de grande ampleur.

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