Barrie Maguire

Jaká role pro stát?

WASHINGTON – Finanční krize z roku 2008 podnítila globální debatu o otázce, jak velká vládní regulace trhů – a jakého druhu – je nejvhodnější. Ve Spojených státech je to klíčové téma nadcházejících prezidentských voleb a ovlivňuje také politiku v Evropě a v zemích s rozvíjejícími se trhy.

Na začátku uveďme, že impozantní růstová bilance Číny v posledních třech desetiletích poskytla světu hospodářsky úspěšný příklad toho, co mnozí lidé označují za „státní kapitalismus“. Také rozvojová politika Brazílie přisoudila silnou roli státu.

Otázky týkající se velikosti státu a udržitelné role vlády vévodí také debatám o osudu eurozóny. Mnozí kritikové Evropy, zejména v USA, dávají krizi eura do souvislosti s nepřiměřeně velkou rolí tamních vlád, ačkoliv skandinávské země si navzdory vysokým veřejným výdajům vedou dobře. Ve Francii se nová středolevá vláda potýká s otázkou, jak splnit svůj slib posílit sociální solidaritu a zároveň podstatně snížit rozpočtový schodek.

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