Quel avenir après le retrait israélien de Gaza ?

Le retrait des troupes israéliennes et l'évacuation des colons juifs de la bande de Gaza après 38 années d'occupation est la preuve la plus récente des limites de la puissance militaire, même quand sa supériorité est écrasante. Le temps est venu de tirer les leçons des années et des années d'occupation et de résistance pour envisager ce qu'Israéliens et Palestiniens devraient entreprendre maintenant. 

Il faut avant tout évaluer la part de responsabilité que les Palestiniens peuvent légitimement revendiquer face au retrait israélien. Il est incontestable que leur résistance et leurs sacrifices ont joué un rôle non négligeable dans la décision d'Ariel Sharon de revenir sur une politique à laquelle il était favorable depuis des décennies. Mais ce serait une erreur que d'attribuer le retrait israélien exclusivement à l'activisme palestinien. Plus ou moins ambiguë, la décision israélienne ne résulte ni d'une défaite militaire ni de négociations politiques.

Mais l'unilatéralisme n'est pas une politique efficace et rationnelle à long terme et ne pourra pas déboucher sur une paix réelle et durable au Moyen-Orient. Comme le président Bush en Irak, Sharon va découvrir les limites de sa stratégie. L'unilatéralisme paraît un outil efficace aux yeux de politiciens incapables de penser à long terme, car il masque la nécessité de ce qu'ils considèrent comme un exercice vain lors de vraies négociations : la rencontre de leur adversaire en face à face et la découverte des conséquences humaines de leur politique. L'unilatéralisme présente également un avantage sur le plan intérieur, car il leur permet de décider sans autre interférence jusqu'où et jusqu'à quand poursuivre une politique donnée.

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