Professional woman working on tablet.

ما الذي يعيب أسواق العمل؟

فيلادلفيا ــ في مختلف أنحاء العالم، تعيش أسواق العمل حالة من الفوضى. فالبطالة مرتفعة في العديد من البلدان، وخاصة بين الشباب. ومن ناحية أخرى، تؤكد العديد من الشركات أنها تجد صعوبة كبيرة في العثور عمال مؤهلين. والواقع أن أعداداً غير مسبوقة من الناس يذهبون إلى التقاعد، ولكن كثيرين يفضلون العمل، ولو بدوام جزئي على الأقل. وقد أزاحت تكنولوجيا المعلومات العمال حتى برغم إسهامها في خلق فرص عمل جديدة.

وتُعَد هذه الإشارات والاتجاهات المتضاربة أعراضاً لسلسلة من عدم التوافق الأساسي بين ما يحتاج إليه أرباب العمل والمواهب التي يتمتع بها أولئك الذين يرغبون في توظيفهم. لم يسبق في العالم قط أن كان العاملون من ذوي التعليم العالي بهذه الكثرة؛ ومع هذا فإن الأزمات في أوروبا، والتعافي البطيء في الولايات المتحدة، وصعود الاقتصادات الناشئة يكشف عن عيوب كانت مستترة من قبل في سوق العمل. ومعالجة هذه العيوب تتطلب مجموعة واسعة من التدخلات الرسمية.

تبدأ المشكلة مع نظام التعليم، الذي كان ذات يوم أكثر فعالية ليس فقط في تعليم وتدريب أجيال جديدة، بل وأيضاً في فرزهم وتوجيههم إلى مسارات وظيفية واعدة. ولكن من المؤسف أن المدارس والجامعات لم تتغير كثيراً على مدى السنوات الثلاثين الماضية، حتى مع خضوع عالم العمل لانقلابات ملحمية. وقد انطلق التعليم والتدريب على الإنترنت في عالم الشركات، ولكن الجامعات تستمر في مقاومته. كما يؤثر تضخم التكاليف بشدة على القدرة على الحصول على تعليم عالي الجودة بالنسبة لأغلب السكان.

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