Was ist die Aufgabe des IWF?

BERKELEY – Der Internationale Währungsfonds war einer der wenigen Nutznießer der globalen Wirtschaftskrise. Noch vor zwei Jahren war er verkleinert worden und ernsthafte Menschen fragten sich, ob man ihn nicht ganz abschaffen sollte. Seitdem ist die Nachfrage nach IWF-Darlehen gestiegen, und die Mitglieder haben sich auf eine Verdreifachung der Mittel geeinigt. Der Fond hat die Genehmigung bekommen, zusätzliche Mittel durch den Verkauf eigener Anleihen zu beschaffen. Es wimmelt dort jetzt nur so vor Aktivität.

Aber die Krise wird nicht ewig dauern, und die Kritiker des IWF sind derweil nicht verschwunden, sie sind lediglich vorübergehend verstummt. Der Fond stachelt ihre Kritik nur noch mehr an, indem er es versäumt, seine Rolle zu definieren. Und das muss er tun, solange er in der Welt noch einen guten Stand hat.

Die wichtigste Aufgabe des IWF ist es, Länder zu unterstützen, die aufgrund innenpolitischer Umstände in eine Zahlungsbilanzkrise geraten sind. Den Regierungen dieser Länder bleibt keine andere Wahl, als ein Darlehen vom IWF zu beantragen. Um ihre Mittel sicherzustellen, d. h., um sicherzugehen, dass die Aktionäre ihr Geld zurückbekommen, muss der Fond schwierige politische Maßnahmen von seinen Schuldner fordern.

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