¿Qué quiere Alemania?

PRINCETON – A esta altura, todos saben que Alemania lleva la voz cantante no sólo en la eurozona, sino en toda Europa. Dentro de Alemania, supo haber infinitos debates sobre la identidad alemana -lo que un historiador llamó "la continua disputa sobre lo que podría significar ser alemán"-. Pero, en términos de política exterior, la Alemania occidental de posguerra -y, luego, la Alemania reunificada- siempre fue absolutamente predecible: nunca contra Occidente; siempre por más Europa. Actualmente, la "República de Berlín" está muy segura sobre su identidad -y, aparentemente, a la deriva en sus relaciones con el mundo.

Existen razones estructurales para este cambio. Alemania es demasiado pequeña como para ser un actor global, pero demasiado grande como para simplemente estar primera entre sus pares en Europa. Mientras los alemanes normalmente no ven ninguna legitimidad en un rol global, aún en alianza con los antiguos socios del país, los vecinos de Alemania no encuentran legítima una Europa liderada por Alemania.

Contrariamente a los temores de muchos de estos vecinos en 1990 (y contrariamente a lo que muchos analistas sostienen hoy), la República de Berlín no es más nacionalista que la antigua Alemania occidental. Es verdad, el entorno pacifista liberal de izquierda que en la antigua República Federal influyó desproporcionadamente en la opinión pública con sus devociones políticas desapareció durante los años 1990; pero la Alemania más "normal" de hoy no empezó olvidando el pasado nazi y reafirmándose como una Gran Potencia.

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