Welche Unternehmensbesteuerung eignet sich für Europa?

Die Europäische Kommission berät derzeit über ein Modell zur gemeinsamen Unternehmensbesteuerung in der Europäischen Union, das aber so nicht funktionieren kann. Vielmehr sollte man eine einfachere und brauchbarere Alternative in Erwägung ziehen, die es bereits gibt.

Unternehmen werden in der EU derzeit aufgrund äußerst unterschiedlicher nationaler Vorschriften besteuert, die auf dem Trennungsprinzip, also der Aufteilung der in den einzelnen Ländern erwirtschafteten Gewinne beruhen. Grenzüberschreitende konzerninterne Transaktionen werden nach Marktpreisen für ähnliche Transaktionen bewertet – dem so genannten Fremdvergleichsprinzip.

Dieses System ist komplex, teuer in der Verwaltung und kann zu Doppelbesteuerung führen, weil die Mitgliedsstaaten die volle Abschreibung von Verlusten und Steuerverbindlichkeiten im Ausland üblicherweise nicht gestatten. Außerdem verleitet das System auch zur Steuerhinterziehung. Dies aufgrund der unterschiedlichen Definitionen des Unternehmensgewinns in den Mitgliedsstaaten und der unzähligen Manipulationsmöglichkeiten beim Fremdvergleichsprinzip (da es in vielen Fällen keine Referenzwerte für Marktpreise gibt), von der Verlagerung der Unternehmensgewinne in Länder mit niedriger Steuerquote ganz zu schweigen.

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