Paul Lachine

ما الذي قد يحل محل الدولار؟

بيركلي ـ لأكثر من نصف قرن من الزمان، لم يكن الدولار الأميركي العملة المعمول بها في أميركا فحسب، بل وفي العالم أيضا. وكان الدولار الوحدة المهيمنة المستخدمة في المعاملات عبر الحدودية والأصل الرئيسي الذي يحتفظ به كاحتياطي لدى البنوك المركزية والحكومات.

ولكن حتى قبل فترة طويلة من موقف سقف الديون المعقد، كان الدولار قد بدأ يفقد بريقه. على سبيل المثال، هبطت حصة الدولار المثبتة في الاحتياطيات من النقد الأجنبي الذي تحتفظ به البنوك المركزية إلى ما يزيد قليلاً عن 60%، بعد أن كانت 70% قبل عشرة أعوام.

والتفسير بسيط: فالولايات المتحدة لم تعد تهيمن على اقتصاد العالم بنفس الدرجة التي نجحت في فرضها في الماضي. ومن المنطقي أن يتبع النظام النقدي الدولي الاقتصاد العالمي في سلوك مسار يتسم بالتعددية القطبية. وكما بات لزاماً على الولايات المتحدة الآن أن تتقاسم الساحة العالمية مع اقتصادات أخرى، فإن الدولار سوف يضطر إلى إفساح المجال أمام عملات دولية أخرى.

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