Sahrawi women hold Polisario Front's flags Farouk Batiche/AFP/Getty Images

西撒哈拉地区去殖民化

西撒哈拉贝尔鲁鲁——1975年西撒哈拉被摩洛哥吞并时,此前近一个世纪都处在西班牙的统治之下。但在弗朗西斯科·弗朗哥独裁统治期的末尾,西班牙对该地区的控制似乎有所削弱。但西班牙并没有坐视去殖民化进程,而是与摩洛哥和毛里塔尼亚签署了三方“马德里协议”,之后两国都派兵进驻吞并西撒哈拉。1979年,毛里塔尼亚放弃了这一诉求,但摩洛哥却从未离开过。

西撒哈拉的法律地位是非常明确的。1963年,联合国大会根据联合国宪章的规定正式承认其为非自治领土——这是一直保留至今的一种法律地位。简言之,西撒哈拉是非洲最后一块殖民地。1975年,国际法院(ICJ)确认了撒哈拉民众的自决权,同时不承认摩洛哥和西撒哈拉领土主权之间是有联系的。

但40多年来联合国一直允许摩洛哥继续非法占领西撒哈拉。而且,向其他不受欢迎的占领一样,摩洛哥一直通过残酷的镇压来宣示其领土主张,有计划的剥夺基本人权并试图强制推行人口变化——同时对西撒哈拉的自然资源展开掠夺。

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