El desafío oriental de Europa occidental

En enero, la Unión Europea se volvió a expandir hacia el este una vez más. Tras la ampliación tipo "Big Bang" de 2004, que incorporó 75 millones de nuevos ciudadanos a la UE, el acceso de Rumania y Bulgaria sumó otros 30 millones. ¿Qué significa esto para los mercados laborales de Europa occidental? Los políticos tienden a decir que, si bien algunos plomeros migran a Occidente y las empresas se instalan en el este, Occidente gozará de más empleos en términos netos debido a la probable expansión de sus exportaciones. Ese razonamiento es familiar, ¿pero es correcto?

Algo es seguro: la ampliación llevó a Europa occidental a enfrentar una competencia salarial extremadamente dura. Mientras que un empleado en el sector industrial de la antigua UE gana en promedio 26.09 euros por hora, en Rumania el promedio es 1,60 euro y, en Bulgaria, apenas 1,39 euro.

La visión de que una ampliación hacia el este creará empleos en Occidente presupone que los trabajadores de bajos salarios del este de Europa serán un complemento de los trabajadores de Europa occidental, y alimentarán la demanda de estos últimos. En realidad, en alguna medida es así. Los ingenieros de Europa occidental son necesarios para diseñar productos de nivel mundial que serán fabricados por trabajadores del este de Europa, mientras que la gente con capacidad de gestión puede tener la certeza de que sus habilidades serán necesarias para integrar a los flamantes trabajadores de la UE a la economía europea.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.


Log in

  1. Chris J Ratcliffe/Getty Images

    The Brexit Surrender

    European Union leaders meeting in Brussels have given the go-ahead to talks with Britain on post-Brexit trade relations. But, as European Council President Donald Tusk has said, the most difficult challenge – forging a workable deal that secures broad political support on both sides – still lies ahead.

  2. The Great US Tax Debate

    ROBERT J. BARRO vs. JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS on the impact of the GOP tax  overhaul.

    • Congressional Republicans are finalizing a tax-reform package that will reshape the business environment by lowering the corporate-tax rate and overhauling deductions. 

    • But will the plan's far-reaching changes provide the boost to investment and growth that its backers promise?

    ROBERT J. BARRO | How US Corporate Tax Reform Will Boost Growth

    JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS | Robert Barro's Tax Reform Advocacy: A Response

  3. Murdoch's Last Stand?

    Rupert Murdoch’s sale of 21st Century Fox’s entertainment assets to Disney for $66 billion may mark the end of the media mogul’s career, which will long be remembered for its corrosive effect on democratic discourse on both sides of the Atlantic. 

    From enabling the rise of Donald Trump to hacking the telephone of a murdered British schoolgirl, Murdoch’s media empire has staked its success on stoking populist rage.

  4. Bank of England Leon Neal/Getty Images

    The Dangerous Delusion of Price Stability

    Since the hyperinflation of the 1970s, which central banks were right to combat by whatever means necessary, maintaining positive but low inflation has become a monetary-policy obsession. But, because the world economy has changed dramatically since then, central bankers have started to miss the monetary-policy forest for the trees.

  5. Harvard’s Jeffrey Frankel Measures the GOP’s Tax Plan

    Jeffrey Frankel, a professor at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government and a former member of President Bill Clinton’s Council of Economic Advisers, outlines the five criteria he uses to judge the efficacy of tax reform efforts. And in his view, the US Republicans’ most recent offering fails miserably.

  6. A box containing viles of human embryonic Stem Cell cultures Sandy Huffaker/Getty Images

    The Holy Grail of Genetic Engineering

    CRISPR-Cas – a gene-editing technique that is far more precise and efficient than any that has come before it – is poised to change the world. But ensuring that those changes are positive – helping to fight tumors and mosquito-borne illnesses, for example – will require scientists to apply the utmost caution.

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now