东欧给西欧带来的挑战

今年一月,欧盟再次东扩。2004年的大幅东扩增加了7500万新欧盟公民。这一次,随着罗马尼亚和保加利亚的加入,又增添了3000万人口。这对西欧的劳动力市场意味着什么呢?政客们往往会争辩说,尽管某些水暖工迁移到了西欧,而某些公司搬移到了东欧,由于西欧有可能会扩大出口,因此西欧的净就业岗位还是会增加。这种推理是熟悉的,但是它正确吗?

有一件事是确定的,那就是,东扩让西欧面对极为严酷的工资竞争。原欧盟制造业的一名雇员平均每小时挣26.09欧元,在罗马尼亚平均是1.60欧元,而保加利亚只有1.39欧元。

东扩将会在西欧创造就业机会的观点假定东欧的低工资工人将会与西欧的工人互通有无并且提高对他们的需求。实际上,这只是部分正确。人们需要西欧工程师设计世界水平的产品并由东欧的工人加以生产,而具有管理技能的人可以确信,人们将会需要他们的能力来将欧盟最新的工人融入到欧洲经济之中。

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