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La deuda de Occidente con Ucrania

WASHINGTON DC – Tal vez Ucrania no figura en tantos titulares como un año atrás, pero la crisis está lejos de haber terminado. El último acuerdo de cese del fuego –logrado en Minsk en febrero– limitó, aunque no detuvo, la agresión militar rusa. Por otra parte, si bien el programa de estabilización que Ucrania acordó con el Fondo Monetario Internacional el mes pasado es superior al acuerdo del año anterior –este incluye más financiamiento del FMI y un plan de reforma económica más creíble por parte del gobierno–, será insuficiente para recuperar la economía del país. Lo que Ucrania verdaderamente necesita es escapar del antiguo régimen soviético y, para ello, la ayuda de Occidente.

Ucrania nunca se las arregló para recuperar su estado después del colapso de la Unión Soviética. El lugar de ello, las antiguas élites soviéticas retuvieron el poder –y la mayor parte de la riqueza del país– con prácticas corruptas que se consolidaron en sus sistemas económico y político. Reformar ambos será un gran desafío, pero en los últimos tiempos los líderes ucranianos se han comprometido a ello.

Desde febrero del año pasado, cuando el parlamento votó para echar al entonces presidente Víktor Yanukóvic con una mayoría superior a los dos tercios, Ucrania ha llevado a cabo nuevas elecciones en ambas instituciones. Cientos de funcionarios de alto grado fueron reemplazados por jóvenes profesionales educados en Occidente y el gobierno está trabajando a ritmo febril para implementar reformas profundas e integrales (entre ellas, una nueva ley de compras y contrataciones públicas y un paquete de legislación anticorrupción). Se suprimieron docenas de agencias de inspección superfluas, lo que redujo significativamente la carga regulatoria. El mes pasado, el presidente Petró Poroshenko echó al gobernador de la región de Dnipropetrovsk, el magnate multimillonario Igor Kolomoisky.

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