Energie pro nejchudší

BRÉMY – Podle odhadů nemá 1,2 miliardy lidí na celém světě, z toho 550 milionů v Africe a 400 milionů v Indii, přístup k elektřině. Většina z nich žije ve venkovských oblastech, kde je řídké osídlení a nízké příjmy, takže je neekonomické připojovat domy a firmy na rozvodnou síť. Vzhledem k vysokým cenám paliv a nutnosti značných počátečních investic navíc není reálné vyrábět na těchto místech energii lokálně pomocí dieselového generátoru.

Stabilní dodávka cenově dostupné elektřiny je nezbytnou podmínkou hospodářského rozvoje. Důsledky pro lidi žijící bez elektřiny mohou být vskutku strašlivé: jsou ochuzeni o přiměřenou zdravotní péči nebo nemohou skladovat čerstvé potraviny. Existuje však jedno řešení založené na místním využívání obnovitelné energie, které vyžaduje minimální počáteční investice a lze ho postupem času rozšiřovat.

Tento „svépomocný“ přístup je založený na využití fotovoltaiky – jednoduché, univerzální a dostupné technologie, která se snadno udržuje. V typickém případě by spotřebitelé v první fázi procesu využívali obnovitelného zdroje energie například k osvětlení LED a přebytky by prodávali tak dlouho, až by ušetřili dost peněz na nákup petroleje na svícení (za který Afričané utratí zhruba 20 miliard dolarů ročně).

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