让穷人用上电

不来梅——全世界估计有12亿人,包括5.5亿非洲人和4亿印度人用不上电。这些人大都生活在人口少、收入低的农村。将农村家庭企业连入电网产生不了经济效益。因为燃油价格高、初始投资大,在当地安装柴油机组发电也不可能。

廉价而稳定的电力供应是经济发展的先决条件。事实上,没有电的后果也许非常可怕:人们可能无法享受充分的医疗保健,或者无法储存新鲜食物。不过利用当地可再生能源的方案需要最低限度的初始投资,随着时间的流逝还可以逐步扩展。

这种“自给自足”的方法基于光伏技术的应用——这是一种简单、普遍、容易维护和拓展的技术。通常过程的第一阶段消费者会使用一种可再生能源(如LED照明),并将多余能源出售攒钱购买灯油(非洲人每年要花200亿美元购买灯油)。

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