Die Neuauflage des Weimarer Russland

Der Ausdruck „Weimarer Russland” entstand vor rund 13 Jahren am Höhepunkt der Konfrontation zwischen Präsident Boris Jelzin und dem Obersten Sowjet, die mit dem Beschuss des Parlaments durch Jelzins Panzer endete. Die Bedeutung des Ausdrucks war allen klar: Ebenso wie Weimarer Republik bezeichnet auch der Ausdruck Weimarer Russland eine schwache Republik, die von innen durch Nationalisten angegriffen wird, denen es um die Wiederherstellung autoritärer Strukturen geht.

In den späten 1990er Jahren und in den ersten Jahren dieses Jahrzehnts schienen die Probleme in den Hintergrund zu treten, welche die Ängste vor einem dysfunktionalen Staat geschürt hatten. In den letzten 18 Monaten allerdings geht das Weimarer Gespenst in Russland wieder um.

Im Extremfall könnte die Reaktion der russischen Gesellschaft auf ihre schmerzvolle Modernisierung in eine von Fremdenfeinden angeführte nationalistische Revolution ausarten. Wenn die im Lauf der postkommunistischen Modernisierung ausgefransten Enden alter Verknüpfungen jedoch wieder zueinander finden und neu zusammenwachsen, ist eine andere, von vernünftiger Zurückhaltung geprägte Reaktion möglich.

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