Výmarské Rusko znovu na přetřesu

Pojem „výmarské Rusko“ se poprvé objevil zhruba před 13 lety, když vrcholil střet mezi tehdejším prezidentem Borisem Jelcinem a Nejvyšším sovětem, který skončil ve chvíli, kdy Jelcinovy tanky ostřelovaly parlament. Význam byl každému zřejmý: výmarské Rusko mělo podobně jako výmarské Německo označovat slabou republiku, na niž zevnitř útočí nacionalisté prahnoucí po obnovení autoritářských pořádků.

Koncem devadesátých let minulého století a v prvních letech tohoto desetiletí se zdálo, že problémy, které vyvolávaly obavy z nefunkčního státu, ochabují. V posledních 18 měsících však Rusko znovu začal obcházet výmarský přízrak.

Dovedena do krajnosti by reakce ruské společnosti na trýznivou modernizaci mohla degenerovat v nacionalistickou revoluci pod vedením xenofobů. Odlišná a zdravá konzervativní reakce je možná v případě, že se podaří znovu spojit roztřepené zbytky starých nitek zpřetrhaných během postkomunistické modernizace a splést je novým způsobem.

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