Le G20 à la rescousse ?

BRISBANE – Le prochain rassemblement du G20 à Brisbane, en Australie, intervient à l’heure où la précarité de l’économie mondiale nécessite la prise de décisions importantes. La question reste néanmoins largement ouverte quant à savoir qui incarnera le rôle décisif nécessaire à l’élaboration d’un agenda audacieux – ainsi qu’à la conduite de sa mise en œuvre.

Un certain nombre de données économiques concluent à l’existence d’une économie globale plus fébrile qu’elle ne l’a jamais été au cours des deux dernières années. Le capitalisme peine à générer une demande adéquate. Richesses et revenus sont de plus en plus concentrés, tandis que les revenus de la classe moyenne au sein des pays développés font face à une stagnation. L’évasion fiscale à laquelle se livrent les multinationales affaiblit les recettes des pays en voie de développement, limitant leur capacité d’investissement en faveur de l’enseignement et des infrastructures. Tout ceci vient s’ajouter à la nécessité d’agir encore plus activement face à cette problématique la plus urgente et la plus structurellement fragilisante de toutes que constitue le changement climatique.

Nombre des plus grands économistes et responsables politiques prévoient une persistance de cette pénombre économique. Stephen Roach a fait valoir qu’au sein de l’économie mondiale d’après-crise, « la rechute constitu[ait] la norme. » L’économiste Brad DeLong, évoquant les « conséquences d’une moindre dépression, » a expliqué que la prétendue reprise de la zone euro n’était qu’une illusion. Le président de la Banque centrale européenne Mario Draghi a quant à lui non seulement reconnu la nécessité d’une réforme structurelle, mais également celle d’une expansion budgétaire afin de dynamiser la demande globale.

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