La guerre de l’eau

NEW YORK – De nombreux conflits sont déclenchés ou attisés par la pénurie d’eau. Les conflits du Tchad au Darfour, Soudan, jusqu’au désert d’Ogaden en Éthiopie, en passant par la Somalie et ses pirates, le Yémen, l’Irak, le Pakistan et l’Afghanistan, se déchaînent dans un grand arc de terres arides où la pénurie d’eau débouche sur la ruine des cultures, la mort du bétail, une pauvreté extrême et le désespoir.

Les groupes extrémistes comme les talibans trouvent d’amples possibilités de recrutement dans des communautés appauvries à ce point. Les gouvernements perdent leur légitimité quand ils ne peuvent garantir les besoins les plus basiques de leurs populations : de l’eau potable, des cultures de base, du fourrage et de l’eau pour les animaux, de qui dépendent les maigres ressources des communautés.

Politiciens, diplomates et généraux des pays ravagés par la guerre traitent généralement ces crises comme n’importe quel autre défi politique ou militaire. Ils mobilisent des armées, organisent des factions politiques, combattent les seigneurs de la guerre ou tentent de lutter contre l’extrémisme religieux.

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