Lekoli River in the Congo River basin Education Images/Getty Images

El agua como fuerza para la paz

MUMBAI – El cambio de guardia en el 38.º piso del edificio de las Naciones Unidas en Nueva York, en el que António Guterres relevó a Ban Ki-moon como secretario general de la ONU, se produjo en un momento en que las ideas relativas a la paz y el conflicto atraviesan un cambio sutil. En particular, la importancia de los recursos (y especialmente el agua) ha comenzado a tener el reconocimiento que merece.

Esto no se dio de un día para el otro. Hace unos veinte años que Ban y su predecesor, Kofi Annan, sostienen que proteger y compartir los recursos naturales, en particular el agua, es crucial para la paz y la seguridad. Pero el pleno reconocimiento de la cuestión sólo llegó en noviembre pasado, cuando Senegal (presidente del Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU ese mes) celebró el primer debate oficial de la ONU sobre agua, paz y seguridad.

El debate, abierto a todos los estados miembros de la ONU, reunió a representantes de 69 gobiernos, que hicieron un llamado conjunto a convertir el agua de causa potencial de crisis a instrumento de paz y cooperación. Pocas semanas después, Guterres designó a Amina Mohammed, ex ministra de medioambiente de Nigeria, como vicesecretaria general.

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