Krieg gegen die Kriegsregeln

Der Wert der Genfer Konventionen von 1949 und ihrer Zusatzprotokolle von 1977 lässt sich unmöglich zu hoch einschätzen. Um es in einfachen Worten zu sagen, Millionen Menschen leben noch, weil diese Normen die Arbeit des Internationalen Roten Kreuzes ermöglicht haben. Zusammen bilden die Konvention und die Protokolle etwas, was irreführend internationales Humanitäres Gesetz (IHG) genannt wird aber tastsächlich das Vorgehen im Krieg regelt. Das Gesetz versucht die Auswirkung des Krieges unabhängig vom Fehlen oder Vorhandensein seiner Berechtigung, einzugrenzen und dem Vorgehen selbst in Schlachten, die für eine gerechte Sache geschlagen werden, Schranken aufzuerlegen.

Zum Beispiel halten jetzt viele Staaten das Verbot, absichtlich auf Zivilisten zu zielen, für bindend und handeln auf dieser Grundlage, indem sie ihre Taktik auf dem Schlachtfeld tatsächlich dahingehend in Schranken weisen. Bedenken sie nur, wie sich das militärische Vorgehen der Amerikaner seit Vietnam, als die Befehlshaber davon sprachen, Dörfer zu zerstören, ,,um sie zu retten", bis hin zu den Operationen in Kosovo und Afghanistan geändert hat, als der Rat von Militäranwälten und sogar von Beamten des Roten Kreuzes in der Frage, welche Ziele bombardiert werden könnten, herangezogen wurden.

Dieser Fortschritt, der mit der Errichtung des Internationalen Strafgerichtshofs im letzten Juli eine weitere institutionelle Stütze bekam, wiegte viele im Glauben, dass der Triumph des Völkerrechts keine utopische Hoffnung mehr sei, sondern bereits eine praktische Perspektive. Diese Vision bleibt verlockend, doch weil sie sich moralisch missbrauchen lässt, birgt sie auch eine tiefe moralische und geistige Gefahr.

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