En guerre contre les lois de la guerre

Il est impossible de surestimer la valeur des Conventions de Genève de 1949 et des Protocoles complémentaires de 1977. En termes humains simples, des millions de personnes sont en vie aujourd'hui parce que ces normes ont permis au Comité international de la Croix Rouge (CICR) de faire leur travail. Ensemble, les conventions et les protocoles forment ce qui est trompeusement appelé la loi humanitaire internationale (LHI), mais qui réglemente en fait la guerre en cherchant à limiter ses effets, quels que soient les droits et les torts des pays impliqués, et à restreindre ses méthodes, même au cours de luttes entreprises pour une juste cause.

Par exemple, de nombreux états estiment désormais que l'interdiction de viser intentionnellement des civils est obligatoire et ils agissent sur cette base en limitant réellement leurs tactiques sur le terrain. Prenez la transformation du comportement militaire américain depuis l'époque du Vietnam, lorsque les commandants parlaient de détruire des villages « afin de les sauver », jusqu'aux opérations au Kosovo et en Afghanistan, où des avocats militaires et même des représentants du CICR étaient consultés sur le choix des cibles à bombarder.

Cette progression, qui s'est davantage imposée sur le plan institutionnel avec la constitution de la Cour criminelle internationale en juillet dernier, a amené certains à penser que le triomphe du droit international n'est plus un espoir utopique, mais une possibilité pratique. Cette vision demeure séduisante, mais dans son attrait moral dort un danger moral et intellectuel redoutablesibilité pratique. du droit international n'est plus un espoir utopique, mais une am, lorsque les commandants ```````````````.

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